WILDLIFE-ANIMAL INTERACTIONS AND CONFLICTS

Forest remains balances between environment, ecosystem and human (Bhattacharya et.

al., 2015). Wildlife and Humans are inextricably linked. But is the interaction always

positive? When the interaction causes a negative impact between human, animal and

environment, it is called "Human-Animal" conflicts.

According to Governmental reports; 328 live stocks were killed with 29 people and 149

people were injured (Mukherjee, 2016) due to these negative interactions. If we consider major


Human-Animal conflict species these include- Elephant, Rhino, Bison and Leopard. Human-Elephant conflict is mostly observed in harvesting season in forest areas during July-September [Pre-Winter Season]. Sometimes humans were killed by poisonous disease full

tuskers (Das and Chattopadhyay, 2011). But every year almost 200 dead bodies of elephants

were found through poaching, electrical fencing, smuggling [skin and teeth] or by hitting of train. (Chakraborty and Mondal, 2012). Human-Leopard conflict was majorly noticed in Tea gardens and Bison, Rhinos conflicts are in crop fields. As a result of crop damage, human death, destruction of infrastructure etc. were observed not only in Jungle or Protected areas

but also in Town and Rustic areas. However, the degree of conflicts is increasing. Every year

from 1989, on average 30% or more than 30% humans [majorly Fisherman communities]


were slayed in Sundarbans for Tiger’s attack. In the high altitude of Himalayas, Human-

Snow Leopard negative interaction was noticed due to the increasing tendency of live stocks.


In India also Human-Lion, Human-Wolf, Human-Bear, Human- Black Buck, Human-

Cheetal, Human-Sambar, Human-Nilgai, Human-Wild boar and Human-Monkeys are also

noted down. Animal death has occurred due to the cause of habitat destruction, rapid

construction, forest shrinkage, human's revenge attitudes etc.

After reading all of the incidents that some ideas arise in our mind that may be conflicts

are related to only mammals but also related to Human-Reptile Conflict [Crocodiles, snakes,

scorpions, and lizards mostly Monitor Lizards], Human- bird Conflict [Peacocks, Cranes,

Water Birds, Parakeets etc.].

But this conflict tradition is continuing even in this pandemic situation of 2021- A dead

body of 10 month old Tiger cub was found from Bhopal (Staff Reporter, 2021); 27 wild boards,

5 Mongooses, 31 Black Naped Hares and many birds [ Spotted Owlet, Asian Koel, Rufous

treepie etc.] were killed and openly cooked in the Southern West Bengal during "Hunting

Festival" (Times New Network, 2021); One Adult Sambar Deer was killed for consumption

purposes in Alipurduar, West Bengal during election time (Ei Samay,2021); 18 elephants were

killed in Assam for Lightening ; Indian Wolf dead body from South part of West Bengal

(Staff Reporter, 2021); Live 155 Parakeets were seized from Narkeldanga Crossing of Kolkata

(WCCB,2021) and so on...

But out of So much negativities, there are some lightning of Hope- Awareness

Campaign from Forest Department, and West Bengal Police to reduce hunting

(Sangbaddata, 2021), " Jungle Jiyao Hamdumi" initiative by Tribal Communities named

"Kudmi Samaj" to reduce the destruction and shrinkage of Forest etc. These types of

initiatives should be carried by us and it’s high time to take pledge about " FOREST AND

ENVIRONMENT"!


References


Bhattacharya S. Ghosh S. Banerjee T. Goswami S. and Das P. (2015). Socio-environmental

survey of an ecologically important hamlet of Darjeeling district, West Bengal, India.

International Letters of Natural Sciences 6 (2015) 51-72

Chakraborty K. and Mondal J. (2012). Perceptions and patterns of human–elephant conflict at

Barjora block of Bankura district in West Bengal, India: insights for mitigation and management.

Environ Dev Sustain (2013) 15:547–565. DOI 10.1007/s10668-012-9392-2



Das Kr. S. and Chattopadhyay S. (2011). Human fatalities from wild elephant attacks - A study

of fourteen cases. Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine 18(2011) 154-157

Ei Samay Alipurduar (2021). ভ োটের সুট োটে হররটের মোাংটস ূররট োজ

Mukherjee N. (2016). A Brief Appraisal of Human Wildlife Conflict in Jalpaiguri and

Alipurduar Districts of West Bengal. International Journal of Scientific and Research

Publications, Volume 6, Issue 8.

Sangbaddata, Jhargram (2021). আরিবোসী রিকোরীটির বুঝিট়ে ভেরত পোঠোল বনিপ্তর

Staff reporter, Bhopal (2021). Tiger cub found dead on rail track in Betul

Staff reporter, Jhargram (2021). জখম গ্রামবাসী, নেকড়কক পিটিকে মারার অপিক াগ ডাপিিাকে

Times New Network (2021). Animals, birds hunted and cooked in open at W. Medinipur Fair

Wildlife Crime Control Bureau, Government of India (2021)


- Debolina Banerjee (debolina014@gmail.com)



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